Disabled Literature—Disabled Individuals in American Literature: Reflecting Culture(s)

Main Article Content

Miles Beauchamp
Wendy V. Chung
Alijandra Mogilner

Keywords

literature, superstition, evil, stereotypes, disabled, culture

Abstract

In American literature, disabled characters are often portrayed as “that other” and used to generate fear, pathos, and hatred.  This affects how variously-abled individuals are perceived and accepted by society.  While writers are being more inclusive and broadening their inventory of characters, many characters are simply a negative plot tool.

Abstract 325 | PDF Downloads 788 Word Downloads 4 Text Downloads 43

References

Abel, T. (1960). Psychiatric technician training manual I. Sacramento, CA: State of California.

Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

Andrews, S. (1998). Inclusion literature: A resource listing. Alan Review, 25(3). Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/ALAN/spring98/andrews.html

Atkins, C. (1998). The portrait. New York: Regan Books.

Atkins, C. (1999). Risk factor. New York: Regan Books.

Beecher, H. (1966). Ethics and clinical research. New England Journal of Medicine, 274, 1354–
1360.

Bogdan, R. (1988). Freak show. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Carroll, N. (1990). The philosophy of horror, or paradoxes of the heart. New York: Routledge.

Cromwell Center. (n.d.-a). The center in the news. Retrieved from http://www.cromwellcenter. org/info.php?s=15

Cromwell Center. (n.d.-b). Disabilities awareness education programs. Retrieved from http://www.cromwellcenter.org/disabilities_awareness_program.htm

Davis, L. J. (2002). Bending over backwards. New York: New York University Press.

Deaver, J. (1997). The bone collector. New York: Viking Penguin.

Eagleton, M. (1986). Feminist literary theory. New York: Basil Blackwell.

Eagleton, T. (1983). Literary theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ellison, G. (2006). The nature of difference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Fielder, L. A. (1996). Images of the disabled in literature and the popular arts: Tyranny of the normal. New York: David Godine.

Goldman, L. (1990). The portrayal of physically disabled children in realistic fiction since 1975 (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Wyoming, Laramie.

Goldwyn, S. (Producer), & Wyler, W. (Director). (1946). The best years of our lives [Motion picture]. United States: Samuel Goldwyn.

Good, M. (2008). Professional English online. Retrieved from http://peo.cambridge.org

Groom, W. (1986). Forrest Gump. New York: Pocket.

Hoefler, J. M., & Kamoie, B. E. (1994). Deathright: Culture, medicine, politics, and the right to
die. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Johnson, M. (Producer), & Levinson, B. (Director). (1988). Rain man [Motion picture]. United States: United Artists.

Kaysen, S. (1993). Girl interrupted. New York: Turtle Bay.

King, D. (2007). How non-disabled children respond to a sibling with a disability (Unpublished
master’s thesis). Smith College, Northampton, MA.

King, S. (2001). Dreamcatcher. New York: Scribner.

Lee, H. (1960). To kill a mockingbird. New York: J. B. Lippincott.

Longmore, P. (1987). Screening stereotypes: Images of disabled people in TV and motion pictures. New York: Praeger.

Longmore, P. K. (2003). Why I burned my book. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Mason, J. (1988). What makes American literature unique? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mason, J. (2003, January). Regent’s Guest Lecture Series, University of California, San Diego.

Moore, J. (2002, July 24). Princess’ regales in tale of regals: Handicapped actors’ troupe hits mark in musical comedy. Denver Post, p. F01.

Murphy, R. (1995). Encounters: The body silent in America. Disability and Culture, 1, 143–156.

National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent and Disabled. (1994). Quarterly report of the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent & Disabled, Inc. Issues in Law & Medicine, Spring. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6875/is_ n4_9/ai_n25022314/

Nelson, J. (2003). The invisible cultural group. In P. M. Lester & S. D. Ross (Eds.), Images that injure (pp. 175–184). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Office of Disability Employment. (n.d.-a). Attitudinal barriers. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Labor Web site: http://www.dol.gov/odep/pubs/ek99/barriers.htm

Office of Disability Employment. (n.d.-b). Attitudinal barriers about people with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.earnworks.com/docs/FactSheets/Employer/FS-ER-AttitudinalBarriers.pdf

Palmer, P. (Producer), & Haines, R. (Director). (1968). Children of a lesser god [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount.

Pernick, M. (1992). The black stork. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pirofski, K. I. (n.d.). Race, gender, and disability in today’s children’s literature. Research Room. Retrieved from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/literature2.html

Quicke, J. (1985). Disability in modern children’s fiction. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.

Reese, D. (1998). Speech development in the infant and toddler. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Shearer, A. (1981). Disability: Whose handicap? Oxford: Blackwell.

Sir Isaac Newton. (2002). In J. Bartlett (Ed.), Bartlett’s familiar quotations (17th ed., p. 290). New York: Little, Brown.

Steinbeck, J. (1937). Of mice and men. New York: Bantam.

Stiker, H.-J. (1999). The history of disability. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowe, H. B. (1998). Uncle Tom’s cabin. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thomson, R. G. (1997). Extraordinary bodies. New York: Columbia University Press.

Varni, J. W., & Setoguchi, Y. (1996). Perceived physical appearance and adjustment of adolescents with congenital/acquired limb deficiencies: A path-analytic model. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 201–208.