Biculturalism in Action: Opening Teachers’ Hearts and Minds.

Main Article Content

Lesley Robinson
Sandra P. Tuhakaraina
Dr Judith Loveridge


bicultural, tertiary, teacher education


This article reports on a New Zealand Aotearoa study of a graduate program, developed and taught by two tertiary lecturers  who endeavored to work in a partnership as espoused in Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Findings highlighted ways in which the students’ thinking shifted as a result of the program. 

Abstract 341 | WORD Downloads 5 PDF Downloads 4


Belich. J. (2001). Paradise reforged: A history of the New Zealanders from the 1880's to the Year 2000. Penguin.
Bishop, R. (1996). Whakawhanaungatanga: collaborative research stories. Dunmore Press.
Bishop, R. (2003). Changing power relations in education: Kaupapa Māori messages for
‘mainstream’ education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Comparative Education, 39(2), 221- 238.
Buissink, N., Diamond, P., Hallas, J., Swann, J., & Sciascia, A.D. (2017). Challenging a
measured university from an Indigenous perspective: Placing ‘manaaki’ at he heart of our professional development. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(3), 569-582.
Campbell L., & Gordon-Burns D. (2017). Bicultural development for teachers and students in
Aotearoa/New Zealand: Is it working? He Kupu: The Word, 5(2).
Durie, M. (2013). Towards social cohesion: The indigenisation of higher education in New
Zealand. In Ngā tini whetu: Navigating Māori futures. Huia New Zealand.
Education Council. (2015). Graduating teacher standards: Aotearoa New Zealand.
Education Council. (2017). Our code, our standards: Code of professional responsibility and standards for the teaching profession.
Education Council and Ministry of Education. (2011). Tātaiako: Cultural
competencies for teachers of Māori learners. teachers-of-Maori-learners.pdf
Education Review Office (2013). Working with Te Whāriki. Author.
Fitzpatrick, M., & Berman, J. (2016). Cultural dissonance in Tertiary education: History
repeating itself. MAI Journal, 5(2), 137-149.
Glazier J., & Bean, A. (2019). The promise of experiential education: Transforming teacher
beliefs and practices. Teaching Education, 30(3), 261-277.
Gordon-Burns, D., and Campbell, L. (2014a). Indigenous rights in Aotearoa/New Zealand-
Inakitia rawatia hei kākano mō āpōpō: Students encounters with bicultural
commitment. Childhood Education, 90(1), 20-28
Gordon-Burns, D., & Campbell, L. (2014b). Biculturalism in early childhood education in
Aotearoa/New Zealand: A consideration of attitudes, policy, and practice. He Kupu: TheWord, 3(5), 23-37.
Gordon-Burns D., & Campbell, L. (2017). “My views have changed”: Graduating E.C.
students calculate their bilingual, bicultural confidence. Early Education, 61, 18-21.
Hart, V., Whatman, S., McLaughlin, J., & Sharma-Brymer V. (2012). Pre-service teachers’
pedagogical relationships and experiences of embedding Indigenous Australian
knowledge in teaching practicum. Compare, 42(5), 703-723.
Hetaraka, M. (2019). A kaupapa Māori analysis of Tātaiako: Considering Maōri education
policy. MAI Journal, 8(2)5, 160-171.
Jenkin, C. (2017). Early childhood education and biculturalism: Definitions and implications New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 14(1,) 8–20.
Kane, K. (2005). Initial teacher education: Policy and practice: Final report. Ministry of
Kaye, N. (2017). Updating Te Whāriki: From the Minister of Education. Early Education, 62, 67.
Lourie M. (2015). Biculturalism in education: Haerer whakamua, hoki whakamuri/Going
forward, thinking back. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 12(2), 131-148
Lourie, M. (2016). Bicultural education policy in New Zealand. Journal of Education Policy,
31(5), 637-650.
May, H., & Carr, H. (2015). Te Whāriki: A uniquely woven curriculum shaping policy,
pedagogy and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand. In T. David, K. Gouch, & S. Powell (Eds.) The Routledge international handbook of philosophies and theories (pp. 316-326). Routledge.
McMillan, H., Te Hau-Grant, R., & Werry, S. (2017). Mai i te pō ki te ao mārama: From the
darkness into the light - supporting early childhood education students to become culturally competent. He Kupu: The Word, 5(2), 27-35.
Ministry of Education. (1996). Te whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o
Aotearoa: Early childhood curriculum. Author.
Ministry of Education. (2009). Ka hikitia - Managing for success: The Māori education strategy.2008– 2012. Updated 2009.
Ministry of Education. (2013). Ka hikitia: Accelerating success 2013–2017—The Māori
education strategy.
Ministry of Education. (2017). Te whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o
Aotearoa: Early childhood curriculum.
Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. (2014). The tertiary education strategy 2014 – 2019.
Rameka, L., & Glasgow, A. (2015). A Māori and Pacific lens on infant and toddler provision
in early childhood education. MAI Journal, 4(2), 134-150.
Ritchie, J. (2003). Bicultural development within an early childhood teacher education
program. International Journal of Early Years Education, 11(1), 43-56.
Ritchie, J., & Rau, C. (2010). Kia mau ki te wairuatanga: Countercolonial narratives of early
childhood education in Aotearoa. In G. S. Cannella and L. D Soto (Eds.)
Childhoods: A handbook (pp. 355-374). Peter Lang.
Stewart, G. (2018). Rebooting biculturalism in Education in Aotearoa-New Zealand. New
Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 15,(1), 8-11/
Sticha, V. (2014). Critical friend. In D. Coghlan & M. Brydon-Miller (Eds.), The Sage
encyclopedia of action research. Sage Publications Ltd.
Te One, S. (2013). Te Whāriki: Historical accounts and contemporary influences 1990−2012. In J. Nuttall (Ed.), Weaving Te Whāriki: Aotearoa New Zealand’s early childhood curriculum document in theory and practice (7-34). NZCER Press.