The Symbolic Ableism Scale

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Carli Friedman
Jessica M Awsumb


Modern Prejudice, Ableism, Discrimination


This study validates the Symbolic Ableism Scale (SAS), which examines subtle prejudice. The SAS has four underlying themes: individualism; recognition of continuing discrimination; empathy for disabled people; and, excessive demands. The SAS is a tool that can be used to help understand how contradicting disability ideologies manifest in modern society to determine how best to counteract them.

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